Welcome to your Mock test 2 - Reading

Full Name
Class
Phone number

SECTION Questions 1 14

Questions 1 - 7

Complete the sentences below.

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for each answer. 

Write your answers in boxes 1 - 7 on your answer sheet.

1. At the year group stations, visitors will be able to see as well as talk to students and staff.

2. The   will speak to visitors and address any queries.

3. Visitors are advised to check with the school   before coming.

4. Visitors are advised to inform their , so they know which children will be absent.

5. Visitors are encouraged to send the school , so the school can improve the next Open Day.

6. Visitors are advised that a   visit is best.
7. Visitors are requested to keep to a minimum during lesson visits.

     Riverside Secondary School Open Day

Next month, on the first Monday of the month, Riverside Secondary School will hold its annual Open Day. During this day, we aim to show present and prospective parents and students our school durinp a normal working day. Pupils will show you around and you'll be able to visit classrooms, and speak to teachers and students. Throughout the whole day, there will be all-day presentations in the sports hall. Each school year and each subject group will have a station manned by staff and students. Prospective parents and students will be able to find all the information they want from those on duty and they'll also be able to examine sample work studied by all the years studying at the school. The year 6 station will be the largest and have the most staff and students on duty to give information. This is because the largest intake annually is into this year group. If you see the station you're interested in is particularly busy, go for a walk and see something else rather than spending a long time waiting in line.

At 11 a.m., there will be a short talk by our head of marketing and this will be followed by a short questions —answers session. At lunchtime, there will be a section of the school cafeteria cordoned off for visitors and you can try out the food that our students and staff eat every day. There will be vegetarian and vegan options available. Please inform ourservinq personnel ofany allergies you might have.

DOs

DO bring your child — he or she will be the one attending the school 

DO prepare some questions for students and teachers

DO look over our website first, so that you don't ask unnecessary questions

DO tell your primary school that you and your child are attending our Open Day 

DO spend a meaningful amount of time on your visit

DO provide us with email feedback on the day, so we can make it better next year

DO try the food and see what your child will be eating 

DON'Ts

DON‘Tjudge the school by any individual students or teachers

DON‘T get too fixed on details — try and get an overall view of the school 

DON'T come too late — the morning is always the most useful time 

DON'T bring the whole extended family — the day will get too crowded 

DON‘T make too much noise in class time

DON'T just stay in one classroom the whole time — move around

Questions 8 - 14

The text on the following page offers different pieces of advice, A - K, on writing a covering letter. 

Which piece o[advice contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A - K, in boxes 8 - 14 on your answer sheet.

                Writing a Covering Letter - Top Tips

When making nearly all job applications today, you are expected to also send a covering letter. As your prospective employer is very likely to read this letter before they get to your CV, it's important that you make an effort to make a good impression with it. Here are some hints to creating an effective covering letter.

A   Use a computer to write your covering letter. This is what will be expected and, while a hand - written letter may seem more personal, it will seem strange nowadays. It also makes the letter easier to edit before you send it and to be read.

B    Personalise your letter. While it's a temptation to use one letter for all applications when you're filling in a lot, a letter tailored to the job on offer is much more likely to make a positive impact on the employer. It also stops you including details of otherjob applications, which will destroy your chances of success.

C  Your letter should focus on your strengths and achievements, but try not to just repeat all the details of your CV.

D   Use the right tone. A job application should be formal, business-like and polite. The letter should also be checked for grammar and spelling errors, and should use the same text format and font size throughout. All these things will signal your professionalism.

E  Don't go on — about five paragraphs over two sides should be enough. Employers often have many applications to screen and they don’t want to (and probably won't) read eight sides.

Do some research. Don't just send the letter off to the company. Call the company and find who will be reading it and direct it to him/her. It's easily noticed that you know what you're applying for and it will make you look good in the eyes of anyone reading your covering letter. Make sure you include at the top of the letter the job title, job reference number (if there is one) and where you saw the advertisement.

G  The start. The first paragraph is where you will grab attention. Make sure that you show your keenness for the job and why you are the right person for it.

The middle. Target the skills required for the job and show how your experience, qualifications and personal qualities make you a match for it. Emphasise any job-appropriate education or course certificates you have. Show your willingness to learn new skills and work with new people.

I   Sign off. Do it in a professional way and say how you'd like to be contacted (your contact details should be in your CV).

If you're sending the application by electronic mail, don't forget to attach your covering letter and CV. Everyone forgets sometimes, but it doesn’t create a good impression when applying for a job!

Be formal. Of course it's important to have friendly staff, but people expect high formality in job applications. It’s the same for an interview. You wouldn't turn up for an interview in jeans and a T-shirt!

 

8. Make sure the covering letter is customised to the company and job applied for.

9. Make sure you mention any relevant training that you have had.

10. Ensure the writing sale in your covering letter is not too relaxed.

11. Make sure your letter is prepared and printed from a laptop or PC.

12. Make sure you proofread your covering letter before sending it.

13. Find out from the company who the letter should be addressed to.

14.  If the company requires an application to be submitted by email, make sure that you've included all the necessary documentation.

SECTION Questions 15 27

Questions 15 - 20

Answer the questions below.

Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the text for each answer. 

Write your answers in boxes 15 - 20 on your answer sheet.

Notes for Employees Considering Night Time Working

Due to the nature of our business, it's sometimes necessary that our staff work at night.

Night shifts can be particularly demanding on employee wellbeing and health. This can include disruption to the body clock, fatigue, sleeping difficulties, disturbed appetite and digestion, reliance on sedatives or stimulants, social and domestic problems and other symptoms of ill health. To combat this, we do not have employees on night shifts for extended periods. This is because workers' bodies will just have started to adapt to the new pattern. We find rotation shifts every two to three days are best for workers and weekly or fortnightly rotations are the least comfortable for workers. Forward - rotating programs(moving from morning to afternoon to night shifts) are better than backward - rotating ones in terms of sleep loss and tiredness.

If someone works at night, there are rules covering the hours they work. Night time working hours are usually between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. - but this can be flexible and should be discussed between you and us. To qualify as night working, the night time period must be no more than 8 hours and include the period between midnight and 5 a.m. Any of our staff under 18 years are not allowed to be night workers.

We must make sure that you don't work more than an average of 8 hours in a 24-hour period. By law, you can‘t opt out of this working limit. We must also keep records of any night workers' working hours to prove they aren't exceeding night working limits, and we must keep the records for at least 2 years. These records can be inspected by you at any time.

Another legal requirement for night work is that we conduct a risk assessment. We must identify any hazards in your work, assess how harmful they could be and take steps to reduce any risks. We conduct regular risk assessments for our night workers and the environment in which they work. The latest risk assessment and the action report on work to address any issues is always available.

If you work any shift for us that ends between 11.00 p.m. and 06.00 a.m., we will pay the cost of a taxi to the worker‘s home. The company has a contract with a local taxi service and employees must use this company, as we have secured good discounts because of our regular use. Because of the ongoing contract, employees are not required pay in the taxi now or keep any receipts. Please ask the company secretary before lunch on the day of travel, so that you can get an assured booking. Regular night workers should contact the company secretary to give him/her details of their shift before it starts, so that a regular booking can be made. Employees living near each other will be required to share taxis in order to cut costs.

Our usual limits and regulations for night workers do not apply to self-employed workers. This does not include agency workers, who are treated as normal workers with us.

If you agree to working at night for us, the agreement will be put in writing.

If you are to begin working at night, we must perform a health assessment before you become a night worker and on a regular basis after that. Usually, this isjust done with a series of questions, which was created in collaboration with qualified health professionals. If there are any health questions regarding your fitness for night work, we will offer you a supplemental examination by a medical professional if you still wish to do nights.

 

15. What kind of rotating shift schedules are best for minimising employees' fatigue?

16. What is the maximum length of a night shift at the company?

17. Where can employees find details on work carried out to make the night time work environment safer?

18. Who will make taxi reservations on behalf of company employees?

19. What kind of workers are not covered by the company night working rules?

20. Who were consulted when creating the health assessment questionnaire?

Questions 21 - 27

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text? 

In boxes 21 27 on your answer sheet write:

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no informotion on this

                      Advice on Backing up Data

Protecting your IT systems and business data is vitally important. Business information can be a valuable asset, and critical information such as financial data and customer records can be very difficult to replace. Loss of confidential or sensitive data can also have serious consequences. In most situations, small investments of time and money can achieve large improvements in information security. Often, security can be improved by simple common sense and good management practice.

The extensive use of computer systems makes business operations vulnerable to major problems, ranging from the accidental loss of data to deliberate sabotage by staff (though the latter is very rare). Storage systems, whether computer or paper-based, can also be at risk of theft or physical damage through a fire or flood.

A backup copy of your business data can allow you to continue trading, even if computer data has been lost. Backups can be made to portable media such as magnetic tapes, DVD -ROMs or external hard drives. Alternatively, online backup services allow you to back up your data over the Internet to the service provider's data storage facility.

A common way today to back up important data is to use a cloud service. Once set up, this can be a low stress and low management option for keeping all information safe. There are, however, a few things to bear in mind. First of all, you should ensure that the processing carried out by your cloud service provider complies with the data protection act. The best way to do this is to have a contract and a data processing agreement in place. Secondly, when choosing your cloud service provider, you should select a data processor providing sufficient guarantees about the technical and organisational security measures governing the processing to be carried out, and that they must take reasonable steps to ensure compliance with those measures. Thirdly, you should research your cloud service provider's record in providing service availability. Service availability means ensuring timely and reliable access to personal data. One threat to availability in the cloud that is often outside the responsibility of the cloud service provider is the accidental loss of network connectivity between you and the service provider. You should therefore check whether they have adopted reasonable measures to cope with the risk of disruptions such as backup Internet network links.

You should have a backup routine (typically daily) as part of your IT security policy and you should check that this is being correctly carried out.

Best practice for backing up data includes:

  • giving one person the main duty for backing up, and designating a second to cover for absence
  •  not relying solely on a cloud-based backup system for keeping your data safe
  • using a different tape, external hard drive or disk to back up each day of the week and having a schedule for rotating them — this can nearly always safeguard backups in the case of a malware attack or the like
  •  keeping backups secure - preferably off-site from the main business premises, e.g. in a bank box
  •  periodically testing your backups to ensure that your data can be successfully restored 

Data backups are a key part of business continuity planning for IT systems.

 

21. For a lot of companies, backing up data should not be an expensive process.

22. Management should provide regular training on recommended back up practices.

23. Employees destroying data on purpose is unusual.

24. Responsibility for backing up data should be shared amongst all relevant staff members.

25. Backing up its material on a cloud system can save a company the time and money spent backing up things on other hardware.

26. Using best practice for back ups can usually keep back up material free from viruses.

27. Viruses usually infect company systems because of employees opening infected emails.

SECTION Questions 28  40

Read the following passage and answer Questions 28 - 40

The Blue Whale

The blue whale is the largest animal in the world. A female blue whale weighing 150 tons (killed in the Antarctic in 1928) was the largest animal ever known to have lived during the Earth‘s 4600 million-year history.

The body statistics of a blue whale are amazing. Marine biologist, Ariadne Scott, describes them. “An average individual is 21 metres long and weighs 100 tons. It has almost 2,500 gallons of blood and burns up to 3 million calories a day. Its heart weighs more than a ton and the tongue alone weighs about 2 tons.” The life expectancy of the blue whale is harder to judge, although they are known to be among Earth's longest-lived animals. Scientist, Sophie Morton, explains how whale experts try and work out their age. “We have discovered that by counting the layers of a deceased whale's wax-like earplugs, we can get a close estimate of the animal‘s age. The oldest blue whale found using this method was determined to be around 110 years old and we estimate that average lifespan is estimated at around 80 to 90 years.”

Blue whales are also the loudest animals on Earth, with their calls reaching 188 decibels (a jet reaches 140 decibels). Recently, Australian marine scientists have detected individuals singing from almost 750 kilometres away. Although no one is certain, the blue whale calls are theorised to be probably a part of breeding behaviour. The Australian scientists can use the data they found for various uses. Australian Science Leader, Dr Mike Dance, said, “Using innovative advanced echosounders, we were able to track individual krill for the first time, allowing an examination of the changing internal structure of the krill swarms that blue whales prey upon. Our ability to find these blue whales also allowed us to investigate the whales' habitat.”

This enormous animal is a real gentle giant. The blue whale is a baleen, which means it feeds only on krill, a small shrimp-like crustacean. Its stomach can hold one ton of krill and it needs to eat about four tons of krill each day. The blue whale spends its summers following its prey and building up its fat reserves, but, as wildlife expert Jon Stephens explains, things change in winter. “Summers are spent in polar waters, because food production is higher there, but in winter, they migrate several thousand miles to warmer tropic and subtropic areas and fast for the duration of their stay while breeding, using the fat on their bodies to see them through the whole winter.” Blue whales usually only congregate for this reproduction and they do not live in the pods common for other whale species. They are found in small numbers throughout the world's oceans, except the Mediterranean and the Arctic. 

 

Conservationist Patrick Liley explains why the blue whale fat is one factor that has threatened the blue whale. "Historically, hunters have chased them to harvest their meat and render the cold - resistant fat down to oil. The larger the whale, the more profit is made from a kill. Killing blue whales therefore made the most commercial sense." The blue whale is currently one of the world's most endangered whales. It was not hunted until modern techniques made them more easily attainable, but by the mid-1900’s, only about 1,000 were estimated to remain.

Blue whales have been protected from whaling since 1966 by the International Whaling Commission, though some were hunted unlawfully until 1972. Stocks in the Southern Hemisphere and North Pacific are currently recovering. The latest estimate revealed 15,000 blue whales remaining worldwide, while pre-whaling populations were estimated at perhaps 300,000 individuals. Although numbers are increasing, worries remain of the health of the population.

New Zealand fisheries spokesman, Alan Cook, explains. "It is not known whether the population is properly recovering. There is a real concern that the drastically depleted genetic pool created by the hunting will affect their capacity to breed properly. Only time will tell if the figures continue to grow."

Other threats to the blue whale include their involvement in other forms of fishing, climate change and destruction or modification of habitat. Fisheries Inspector, Steve Hartnett, describes the threat from fishing. "Like many marine animals, blue whales are at risk of ‘bycatch’, which is accidental entanglement in fishing gear, which can cause injury, infections, starvation and drowning." Climate change may also affect blue whales throughout the Southern Hemisphere by depleting or shifting the distribution of prey. Melting ice also allows oil companies better accessibility to oil and pas deposits. This can cause various problems for blue whales and their environment, including one that is not often considered. Alice Baggley, an environment spokesperson, explains the problem. "There is concern that noise pollution may affect blue whales’ ability to communicate, particularly in New Zealand, where there is persistent seismic activity for oil and gas extraction near a blue whale foraging ground."

The blue whale is the largest animal to have lived on the Earth. Like many creatures, human activities threaten its continued existence. Patrick Liley explains what he feels is the solution. "It's not a secret. Whaling caused the initial destruction of the blue whale, and it continues to do so. We need to make all countries stop whaling and close the loophole on ‘whaling for scientific purposes’ that permits commercial whaling to carry on."

 

Questions 28 - 35

Look at the following statements (questions 28 - 35) and the list of people below. 

Match each statement with the correct person‘s initials.

Write the correct initials in boxes 28 - 35 on your answer sheet.

28. Damage to blue whale numbers may have damaged the whales' ability to reproduce in a sustainable way.

29. A dead blue whale was used to estimate how long blue whales live.

30. What helps blue whales survive winters has led to them being attractive targets for whalers.

31. New technology has helped research the food that blue whales eat.

32. The blue whale's dimensions are extraordinary.

33. Countries exploiting gaps in the whaling law need to be stopped to halt the threat to blue whales.

34. Blue whales do not feed during their periods of mating.

35. Hydrocarbon fuel exploration could affect how blue whales communicate with each other.

Questions 36 - 40

Choose the correct letter A, B, C or D.

Write the correct letter in boxes 36 - 40 on your answer sheet.

36. Scientists are now fairly certain that blue whale sounds

37. Blue whales gather in groups

38. The blue whale only became endangered

39. Although blue whales should not have been subject to hunting since its abolition

40. Blue whales getting accidentally caught up in fishermen's nets